Beowulf the storyteller’s idea of a great celebration

Introduction
Synopsis
The Original Old English
My Translation
A Quick Interpretation
Closing

A scop sings his boasts, just like Beowulf does before Hrothgar.

Image found at http://bit.ly/2jumA3j


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Synopsis

Beowulf recounts the various conversations going on in Heorot’s post-Grendel celebration.


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The Original Old English

“‘Me þone wælræs wine Scildunga
fættan golde fela leanode,
manegum maðmum, syððan mergen com
ond we to symble geseten hæfdon.
þær wæs gidd ond gleo. Gomela Scilding,
felafricgende, feorran rehte;
hwilum hildedeor hearpan wynne,
gomenwudu grette, hwilum gyd awræc
soð ond sarlic, hwilum syllic spell
rehte æfter rihte rumheort cyning.
Hwilum eft ongan, eldo gebunden,
gomel guðwiga gioguðe cwiðan,
hildestrengo; hreðer inne weoll,
þonne he wintrum frod worn gemunde.'”
(Beowulf ll.2101-2014)


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My Translation

“‘Golden ornaments were awarded to me then
by the friend of the Scyldings for that mortal conflict,
countless treasures, once the morning had come
and we had sat down to feast.
There was song and sonorous entertainment there,
an elder Scylding recounted tales of things learned long ago,
one brave in battle was in harp joy,
he struck the delightful wood while retelling
tales both true and tragic, the great hearted king
correctly shared strange stories,
and an old warrior bound by age proceeded
to a lament for his youth, of strength in battle.
Within him his heart surged when
he recalled many things from the seasons of his past.'”
(Beowulf ll.2101-2014)


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A Quick Interpretation

This passage is really all about how stories and celebration are linked in early medieval Anglo-Saxon culture.

That said, I’m not surprised (but I am a little disappointed) that there aren’t any women telling stories here. I mean, Wealhtheow must have a wealth of stories to share. After all, she grew up elsewhere and probably knows some regional tales that none of the Danes would’ve heard before. Or she could share the story of her upbringing, of some court intrigue back home, or of travelling to Daneland to marry Hrothgar. There’s a lot for her to work with.

But instead this is a very masculine scene. Which is how a party in an early medieval hall would likely be.

Though Beowulf once again shows his sensitive side here. He must have been sitting back and just taking everything in. Otherwise, I’m not sure how he would’ve heard all of these different conversations and stories.

It’s this extra detail once again makes Beowulf’s account of his time in Daneland much more interesting than the poet’s version. Beowulf even includes a detail that proves that his version is probably just a differently told version of the same events.

On line 2109 Beowulf says that the tales of one of the tellers were “both true and tragic” (“soð ond sarlic”).

I think this is probably a reference to the story of Hildeburh and the slaughter of Finn’s house. But what does such a connection matter?

This connection suggests that this poem is really playing with the theme of how people shape their story.

A great example of this comes up at the end of the poem: Beowulf’s dying wish is that he be remembered as one who was always eager for glory. Further, Tolkien’s reading Beowulf as an elegy rather than an heroic epic brings it even more in line with the importance of shaping your story. After all, elegies are tragic remembrances of things now gone and such remembrances are rarely comprehensive.

And that what I think is the crux of this scene. Beowulf is shaping his story as he describes the hall full of stories to Hygelac.

Plus, though there are only male voices sharing stories, there are still several of them. One is a king, another is handy with an instrument, and at least one other is an old man well past his prime. But it’s those several voices that weave together and tell tales, and in so doing contribute to Beowulf’s own tale.

It seems that as much as Beowulf is about daring heroics and gory action, it is also a story, and passages like this one show how much its early tellers and audiences revelled in stories.

What do you think the reason Beowulf includes all of this storytelling in his description of the celebrations in Heorot? Why not just talk about how good the mead was, or how well received the other Geats were?

Share your thoughts in the comments!


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Closing

Next week, Grendel’s mother strikes!

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Not trusting in his journey: Beowulf the storyteller?

Introduction
Synopsis
The Original Old English
My Translation
A Quick Interpretation
Closing

A scop sings his boasts, just like Beowulf does before Hrothgar.

Image found at http://bit.ly/2jumA3j


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Synopsis

Beowulf and his fellow Geats meet with Hygelac and he asks how things went.


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The Original Old English

“Gesæt þa wið sylfne se ða sæcce genæs,
mæg wið mæge, syððan mandryhten
þurh hleoðorcwyde holdne gegrette,
meaglum wordum. Meoduscencum hwearf
geond þæt healreced Hæreðes dohtor,
lufode ða leode, liðwæge bær
hæleðum to handa. Higelac ongan
sinne geseldan in sele þam hean
fægre fricgcean (hyne fyrwet bræc,
hwylce Sægeata siðas wæron):
‘Hu lomp eow on lade, leofa Biowulf,
þa ðu færinga feorr gehogodest
sæcce secean ofer sealt wæter,
hilde to Hiorote? Ac ðu Hroðgare
widcuðne wean wihte gebettest,
mærum ðeodne? Ic ðæs modceare
sorhwylmum seað, siðe ne truwode
leofes mannes; ic ðe lange bæd
þæt ðu þone wælgæst wihte ne grette,
lete Suðdene sylfe geweorðan
guðe wið Grendel. Gode ic þanc secge
þæs ðe ic ðe gesundne geseon moste.'”
(Beowulf ll.1977-1998)


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My Translation

“He sat there with his own, a survivor of battle amidst veterans,
kin with kin, once the lord there
had graciously greeted him with singing tones
and great words. Bearing the mead jug
around the hall was Hygd, Haereth’s daughter,
loved by the people, filling the offered cups
with plenty. Hygelac then began
to ask fair questions of the man
in that high hall. He burst with curiosity,
sought to know how all the sea-going Geat’s journey went:
‘How fared you on your journey, dear Beowulf,
when you suddenly strove to travel far
over the salt sea to seek strife,
battle, at Heorot? And were you a help
to the widely known best of men,
to that famed prince? I have had sorrow
sitting upon my heart, I did not trust in your
journey, dear man. Long had I told you,
do not go to meet this monster at the hall,
let the South Danes work war against Grendel
themselves. Thus I say thanks to god,
that I am able to see you hale and whole here.'”
(Beowulf ll.1977-1998)


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A Quick Interpretation

I decided to go for a longer passage this week since the description before Hygelac’s questions is pretty ho-hum. The poet tells us that Beowulf and the Geats are in the hall, Hygd is pouring them mead, and everyone’s happy to see each other. On the one hand it’s sort of notable that Hygd is called “Haerath’s daughter” (“Hæreðes dohtor” (l.1981)). But on the other seeing that as an attempt to keep named women from the poem overlooks the poet’s penchant for referring to people by their parentage. Which is still a popular device today (look no further than the popularity of family tree websites).

So I wanted to get right into Hygelac’s dialogue. Unfortunately, much like the passage before it, it sounds like what you’d expect.

Hygelac is indeed ‘bursting with curiosity’ (“hyne fyrwet bræc” (l.1985)). But amidst these rapid fire questions comes a confession: “I did not trust in your/journey” (“siðe ne truwode” (ll.1993-1994)). This sentence is very telling. For all of Beowulf’s bluster while in Daneland, he did not have the full support of his fellow Geats.

What’s more surprising is how effective that bluster was, since it not only impressed the coastguard that Beowulf and his crew first met, but the man’s boasts also won Hrothgar over to his side. What’s more, though, is that maybe those boasts were a little exaggerated. Beowulf seems to do well enough (maybe) relying entirely on his improv skills to explain away losing to Breca in their swimming match, but, if Hygelac’s doubt is anything to go by, then it sounds as if Beowulf was a better storyteller than fighter before he set out. Though he certainly put his fists where his mouth was.

If you look at this section as a whole, actually, it looks as if Beowulf is being coddled. The queen is serving everyone generous portions of mead, the king is tripping over himself with questions for the lately returned wanderer. It’s a scene that, to me, evokes the return of a dearly loved but somehow frail child who is just back from flying across the country for the first time with a relative.

What’s more, as the next 163 lines will show, Beowulf is quite the storyteller. I don’t think the poet included Beowulf’s retelling of the fight with Grendel to Hrothgar or the brief flashes of the fight with Grendel’s mother he shares just for the sake of reminding his audience of what happened hundreds of lines earlier.

So the big question is this: Is Beowulf really that great a fighter, or is he more of a storyteller? Or is he both? Sure, he beat up Grendel and then Grendel’s mother. But maybe those giants he boasted about beating up were just his childhood bullies. What do you think? Leave your thoughts in the comments!


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Closing

Next week, Beowulf begins his version of his story.

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